The avocado (Persea americana mil) is a plant native to Mexico. The taste, texture and nutritional properties have made its consumption to expand worldwide. Its importance in the international market has grown steadily, ceasing to be an exotic fruit to be incorporated into the diet of many countries.
Mexico and Chile are the leading exporters of avocado; on a smaller scale are the Netherlands, Spain, Israel, and Peru. The main importer (for consumption and redistribution) is the United States of America, followed by France, Holland, England and Japan.
The Andosol soil (called “topure” in Purepecha language) has shown to be optimal for the avocado, however, it may develop in other soils. The most suitables are those with 2 meters deep, medium texture, well drained, high content of organic matter and pH between 6.0 and 7.5 2
The optimum temperatures for the harvesting avocado are 25 - 30°C during the day and 15 - 20°C overnight. During the resting period the temperature between 10-15°C stimulate the production of flowers. The temperature above 40°C and low relative humidity causes drying of stigmas (preventing fertilization) and fruit drops that are freshly coagulated. Relative humidity for a good impregnation is approximately 60%.
The avocado is grown successfully in areas with altitudes between 200 and 1,400 meters, with annual rainfall of 1.000 to 1.800 mm, relative humidity of 80 to 85%, annual photoperiod from 980 to 1,200 hours light and an anual heat rate of 1,750 to 3,250 accumulated heat units between 10 and 30°C. The critical periods of humidity are during flowering and fruiting (filling and ripening).
The different types of avocados are classified into three ecological races or ecological groups: Mexican, Guatemalan and Antillana. The Mexican is classified as: Hass, Fuerte, Criollo and Pagua.
Hass variety is the primary due to its sustained productivity (varies a little from year to year), has qualities to withstand transport and conservation. It has a pulp content of 70%, which is the greenish-yellow color and has a fat content of 18%.
The growth habit of the tree, considered compact, allows the increasing densities of population and facilitates the work of cultivation.
Establishment of orchard
Preparing the soil. Before doing so its suggested to consider the following: choose a site with good drainage and soil diseases free, as the "sorrow of the avocado harvester" and have quality plants (produced in certified nurseries). If water is available for irrigation of gravity should be leveled and oversun the ground before planting. After the drilling has been made according to the size of the bag that holds the plant; in the bottom of them its placed a layer of a compost and fertilizer mix with insecticide and fungicide. Before planting let aerate strain for 30 days.
Stroke planting. It can be done on framework (in a square), staggered, triangle or hexagon. The spacings may be of 10x10, 8x6, 6x5, or 5x5 with a density of 208 to 400 trees per hectare.
Harvest. The fruit should be cut when it reaches ¾ of its maturity, during the morning (without any moisture in the fruit and prevent mechanical damage by chafing) and using hand shears to avoid injury in which develops disease. Avoid exposure of the fruit to the sunshine, if necessary cover the avocado with a tarp or other material.